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Description of Ta Rat':
The Subterranean Temple
of the Giane
This is the first description of the subterranean temple of
the Giane of Sardinia, which they respectfully refer to as Ta
Rat' ("this holy thing" in
It is an especially
large (32 X 20 m.) artificial cavarn, rather like the
Domus de Janas or Domus de Gianus
as the Sardinians call the ancient rock-cut tombs
which permeate Sardinia and date from the Copper Age
However, this underground
temple (tmia), is more in the style of an
(t'aura), such as the well-known
Tomba del Cardinale
and the (now lost)
Tombo dei Ceisinie
(both in Tarquinia). Ta Rat' is buried in the heart of
the highest peak in the
Plan of Ta Rat'
The roof the subterranean temple is supported by a
number of pillars (3.5m. tall) decorated with colorful relief sculptures
(described below). A central group of sixteen pillars is flanked
by a trio of pillars on each of the eastern and western ends of the
cavern. The sixteen pillars are arranged in two groups (east
and west) of four pairs. In general, each of these pairs of pillars
has a corresponding goddess and god, as shown by their reliefs.
The four rows of four (each comprising an east pair and a west
pair) are spaced evenly across the width of the temple (from
north to south).
Each of the four pillars in the northernmost row has a
built in censor, which is kept smoking by the Giane priestesses.
The pillars in the next row to the south each have a small basin
of water, rather like a baptismal fount. The third row is
decorated with semiprecious gems and polished metal. The
pillars of the southernmost row have oil lamps, which the
priestesses keep burning.
In the middle of these sixteen pillars is a hearth built
around an seemingly bottomless fissure in the rock floor, and
above it in the ceiling is a smoke hole, through the great length
of which a bit of the sky can be seen. The Giane call the fissure
Chaos Profundum (Abyssal Chaos) and the chimney
Spiraculum Aeternitatis (Air Hole of Eternity).
We entered through a hidden opening on the slopes of the
mountain and went through a long passage to the temple
entrance, which the Giane called the Eastern Portal. As will be
described later, there is also a Western Portal at the other end
of the temple. I also noticed slabs in the center of the northern
and southern walls, which may have closed northern and
southern portals, but my guides evaded my question about
these. Finally, there are four tunnels which lead diagonally
from the corners of the temple, and I was taken into these first.
They are called the Quadrivia (Four Ways).
The Four Ways
The Four Ways lead off from corners of the cavern, to the
northeast, northwest, southwest and southeast, and each is
named after a river in the Underworld. They all have a
common structure: Fourteen large steps or landings lead
upward to a shrine at the end of the passage. Each step is
carved with an abstract emblem, the emblems increasing in
complexity as one goes from the shrine toward the central
temple. The emblems appear to be structured around the
numbers one through ten, although the last four (the eleventh
through fourteenth) are more complex. I was shown each
passage in turn.
The northeastern passage is called "Acheron of Ever-flowing
Grief and Melancholy." The walls of the tunnel are painted
reddish brown, which has flaked off to create a dry, brown dust
on the floor. The shrine at the end of the tunnel is a fissure in
the living rock, which my guides described as a "bottomless pit,"
and so it seemed to be. They said it went into the very bowels
of Cel Ati (Mother Earth). Into it the Giane pour libations of
The northwestern passage is called "Styx, the Hateful and
Bone-chilling." Indeed, the tunnel seemed very cold, partly
because it is painted black and partly because of an inky stream
which ran its length from the shrine, a spring flowing from a
cleft in the rock. Into this stream the Giane pour libations of
water for Nethuns (Neptune). It runs out into the main temple
and vanishes into an opening in the floor at the base of one of
the pillars, which has been displaced to accommodate it (see
The southwestern passage, which has green walls and a
white floor, is called "Cocytus, which Shrieks and Wails," as
indeed it does, for a terrific blast of hot, humid wind blows
continually from an opening at the wall at the end of the tunnel.
I imagine this opening must eventually lead above ground, but
I could see no light and it was pitch dark. The Giane say that
the winds converge on the shrine from the four corners of the
earth. The shrine is dedicated to Uni (Juno), to whom they pour
libations of milk.
The southeastern passage, which is golden colored, is called
"Pyriphlegethon, which Blazes like Fire." Indeed, the heat in the
tunnel was almost unbearable, for at the shrine is an eternal
flame, which seems volcanic in origin. Into this flame they pour
honey libations for Tinia (Jupiter).
The Relief Sculptures on the Pillars
After exploring the Four Ways, we returned to the Eastern
Portal, whence I was taken from pillar to pillar in a definite
order, which was indicated by a letter of the archaic (7th cent.
BCE) Etruscan alphabet above the relief on each
I will describe the reliefs in this alphabetic order, and mention the
corresponding Etruscan letter, below. For my benefit, a Giane
was waiting by each pillar and, when I came to it, she recited an
enigmatic Latin verse, which was apparently intended to
illuminate the relief. (I've translated these verses below.)
These Giane are responsible for their pillars (repairing the
reliefs and restoring the paint), are dedicated to the deities
represented, and are experts in their mythology.
1. Fufluns (A)
The first pillar, which is directly in front of the Eastern
Portal, shows Fufluns (Bacchus), dancing with his thyrsus. He
wears a green cloak and is accompanied by a snake and a
panther. The Giane responsible for this pillar, who is aptly
named Panthera (Panther), recited this verse:
Behold! the Holy Idiot, lost within
She added that the entire temple is in some sense devoted to
Satre (Saturn) and Ops (or Venus Genetrix, whom they usually
call Turan Ati). The letter on this pillar is A, which represents, I
was told, the Gods (Aisar), Being (Am), the Father (Apa), the
Mother (Ati), the Ape (Arim) and the months Anpile (May) and Acala (June).
Next, Panthera led me to each of the other pillars in their proper
A private world. He'll have the chance to win
New freedom from confining rules. Rejoice
The madness! For it brings another choice.
Let Satre's holy festival begin!
2. Turmus (C)
Next we went south to the second pillar of the eastern trio. I
could see that it represents Turmus (Mercury), since the figure
holds a caduceus, wears his broad-brimmed hat, and is
accompanied by his rooster. He is depicted as a mature man,
dressed in a red and green tunic and mantle. He stands behind
a table on which there are two dice and other paraphernalia; a
Gorgon mask hangs on the wall behind him. Serpens (Serpent)
announced that Turmus is called the "Lord of Chance" and then
recited this verse:
A touch of the Wizard's Wand: a word,
This pillar is labeled with the letter C, which stands for
Ritual (Cec'a), Direction (Cel), the Son (Clan), the numbers Three
(Ci) and Eight (Cezp), and the month Celi (September).
A sight, a sound, a gift by chance conferred,
Transforms your life, and leads the soul beyond
Accustomed bounds, if only you respond.
Attend the Guide whene'er the call is heard!
3. Uni (E)
We temporarily skipped the third pillar in the eastern trio,
and came to the pillar in the southeast corner of the central
sixteen. It depicts Uni (Juno) crowned and seated in her throne,
which has emerald lions for armrests; she is attended by her
peacock and holds a sceptre topped by a dove or cuckoo. Green
is the most common color on this relief.
Eternal Mother, mistress of the grain,
This pillar's letter is E, which means Sacrifice (Esvis').
Sustaining growth with either milk or rain,
Engulfs again her children, whereupon
The self-consuming wheel of life goes on.
Within her womb we all descend again!
4. Tinia (V)
Next, we moved west to the fourth pillar, which forms a pair
with the third; naturally, it depicts Tinia (Day, i.e., Jupiter), the
husband of Uni (Juno). In bold reds it shows him in a classic
pose: seated on his throne and attended by his eagle. He holds
a thunderbolt in one hand and in the other a sceptre topped by
a golden orb. Aquila (Eagle) said,
The Mighty Father makes the laws that bind
The letter is V, which stands for Fire (Verse) and the month
The elements, the plants, and every kind
Of beast - but people too. He strives to feed
The folk, defending them by word and deed.
Observe the judgments fathered by his mind!
5. Ves'na (Z)
We moved north to the next pair, starting again with the
eastern pillar, which depicts Ves'na, an Etruscan lunar spirit, in
dark blues. She is slim, with short hair, a ten-rayed crown, and
also a lunula - an upward lunar crescent - on her
brow. She wears shoes, a studded belt and a full-length tunic,
with a sort of vest made from a Bacchic panther skin with the
head attached. She holds a sistrum in her right hand and a vase
in her left. She sits under a canopy in a chariot drawn across
the sea by a black horse and a white horse. A Giane named
Canis (Dog) recited:
The Shining Queen, who rules the velvet night,
The letter on this pillar is Z, which means Rite (Zeri), Book
(Zic'), Leader (Zil) and the number
And nurtures nascent growth, concealed from sight,
Transforms and changes, light and dark by turns,
And seeks the Sun to sire the spark that burns
Within the water, newborn Child of Light.
6. Usil (H)
Paired with the preceding pillar is one depicting Usil (Helios),
the Etruscan sun god. He is shown as an old, but clean-shaved,
winged man with a radiate crown, and holding a pruning saw in
his right hand and a vase in his left. He wears a long tunic,
revealing his bare feet, sleeves to elbows, with a belt. He rides
in a golden chariot drawn by two hippocampi (one black, one
white). The dominant colors are red and gold. Lupa (She-wolf)
The Sun obscured by night, the heavens' fire,
The letter H stands for the Phallic Statue (Herma), Children
(Husar), the number Six (Hut') and the month Hermie (August,
originally the sixth month).
Inflaming lunar waters, looks to sire
The Child, and purify the world with scorn
Severe, that scorches errors earthly born.
He holds the heights to which we all aspire.
7. Ac'vizr (T')
We progressed to the third pair of pillars, the first of which
depicts two nearly naked figures, apparently Aplu (Apollo) and
Aritimi (Diana), facing each other in a forest clearing. In the
sky above them hovers Ac'vizr (Cupid?), a barefoot, naked,
winged child (of unclear sex)
holding a downward pointing dart in his right hand
and a dish in his left. The colors are red and white. Columba
Desire draws the Moon and Sun to hold
The letter on this pillar is T', which represents the Cup
(T'afna), the Dawn (T'esan), the number One (T'u) and the
month T'ucte (?).
Each other; hid in darksome depths, the bold
Embrace of sibling spirits joined in love
Unites the world below with sky above.
Unasked, the Dart of Passion strikes; be bold!
8. Alpan (I)
Paired with Ac'vizr is a pillar showing Alpan (Gift, Harmonia), a winged
girl, naked but for sandals and a multicolored mantle over her
left arm and wrapped around her legs. Her hair is piled up and
she wears a necklace, ear rings and a tiara with a gem in the
middle of a six-pointed star. She pours from a vase in her right
hand into a dish in her left. In the background a dart flies
upward into a rainbow between the twin peaks of a mountain.
Gold and silver dominate the colors. This verse was recited by a
Giane named Iris:
The Child Divine was born of Moon and Sun.
Her letter is I, representing the making of prayers or
She tempers wine with water, never done
With mixing, and her rainbow joins the poles,
For she's the messenger and guide of souls.
Accept her cup, and let the two be one.
9. Maris Apa & Mean (K)
Finally we came to the northernmost of the four eastern
pairs of pillars. The more eastern one shows Maris Apa
(Marspiter, Father Mars) driving his triumphal chariot drawn
by a red horse and a blue horse. He sits naked but for a cloak
draped over his left shoulder, and is beardless, with short, red
hair. He holds a long lance in his right hand, and holds the reins
in his left. He wears bronze greeves and a Phrygian helmet.
Beside him is a figure-eight shield decorated with a bronze
apple surmounted by a spread-wing Victory. Red is the
Mean (Victoria) flies above Maris, bringing victory. She is
winged and naked but for a purple mantle over her left arm,
wrapped back around her legs and flung again over her left
arm. She wears ear rings and sandals, and Her hair is done up;
she holds a laurel wreath in her hands. Ursa (She-bear) stated,
The Hero crowned by Victory drives the car
The letter on the pillar is K, which represents Making (Kar),
the Son (Klan) and the month Karpe (April).
Of triumph, seeking still to venture far,
Accepting every challenge. He commands,
And masters mighty steeds with skillful hands.
Our eyes are dazzled by the Hero's star!
10. Lasa (L)
The pillar paired with Maris depicts Lasa, a martial goddess,
as young woman, who wears a thin, saffron tunic, above her
knees, with simple boots and bracelets on her left arm. Her hair
is fastened up, and she wears ear rings. She appears to be
forcing open with her bare hands the jaws of a lion, wreathed
with roses, who sits beside her. An unused sword or dagger lies
on the ground nearby. Leaena (Lioness) sang,
With gentle hand and eye she charms the beast
This pillars is marked L, which represents Lasa, Lion(ess)
(Leu), Family (Lautn), and Giving (Al, cf. Alpan).
And teaches him the time to speak. Released
From fear of one another, freedom grows
For each, a bond that blossoms like the rose.
It's love, not fear or hate, that tames the beast!
11. Cilens (M)
Having visited the first quadruple of pairs, Panthera took me
back to the third of the eastern trio of pillars, which we had
skipped earlier. It depicts Cilens (Fortuna) in the center of the
"wheel of fortune." She wears a long, heavy, coarse mantle of
varying hue over a tunic, and has bracelets on her arms. She
holds the cornucopia in her left hand and a ship's rudder in her
right. Four small figures are on the rim of the wheel, a young
man to the left, a mature man on top, an old man on the right,
and a decrepit man at the bottom. Amalthea said Cilens is the
"Lady of Chance" (thus complementing Turmus, the Lord of
Chance), and then she recited:
The Wheel of Fortune turns; while one declines
The letter M on the pillar means Being (Am), the Ego (Mi),
the Ancestors (Mani), the number Five (Mac) and the month
Another is upraised, but she assigns
The fate who holds the axle pin,
For Cilens is the drama's origin.
Ensure each turn of life the soul refines!
12. Satre (N)
The next pillar in order was one of the western trio, in the
southwest corner of the temple. It depicts Satre (Saturn) as an
old man carrying a sickle in his right hand and in his left an
hour glass filled with black sand. The dominant colors on the
relief are black, brown and white. Pica (Magpie) introduced
him as the "Lord of Necessity" and then chanted:
No power impedes the measured step of Time,
The letter N represents the Diviner (Haruspex, Netsvis'), the
Dead One (Nes), the Grandson (Nefs'), He/She (An) and the
number Nine (Nurf).
Which eats away from everything its prime,
For nought endures for long. Yet passing years
May grant us peace and wisdom, free from fears.
Attend the tread of Time: stark, yet sublime.
13. Prumat'e (P)
After visiting Satre, we returned to the southeast corner of
the western quadruple of pairs of pillars. The pillar there
depicts Prumat'e (Prometheus) suffering his punishment on the
peak of Mt. Caucasus. There we see him suspended upside
down, hanging by his left leg from a tree, on which a snake
climbs towards him. Red is the dominant color: Promet'e has
red hair and is naked and sun-scorched; blood runs from a
wound where the eagle of Jupiter daily tears his liver. A
burning brand lies on the ground nearby. Ferula (Fennel)
Desiring revolution, he betrayed
The letter P on the pillar means Promet'e (Prometheus), the
Grandfather (Papa) and the Wife (Puia).
His world; by choice the painful price is paid.
Hanging above the Abyss by Heaven's chains,
He calmly waits for freedom from his pains.
Who dives within the womb will be remade!
14. Eita (S')
Paired with Promet'e to the west is a pillar depicting Eita
(Hades). He is horrifically depicted in blacks and whites, for he
wears skeletal armor and stands in the midst of severed body
parts. He holds an empty dish in his right hand and an
(apparently) empty cornucopia in his left. In the background is
a Mycenaean beehive tomb flanked by a white cypress on the
left and a dark cypress on the right. Menta (Mint) intoned,
The Lord of Death is paid in bitter coin
The letter S' on the pillar represents the Dead (S'an),
Establishing (S'at'e) and the numbers Four (S'a) and Ten (S'ar).
For dissolution, hoping he'll rejoin
The scattered parts, far better rearranged,
For callous Death's decrees cannot be changed.
"Accept thy fated end," he doth enjoin.
15. Set'lans (Q)
The next pair of columns to the north begins with a depiction
of Set'lans (Hephaestus). He is attractive, sports a goatee, and
has long ringlets descending from his navy-blue Phrygian cap
(which has golden ram's horns on it). He wears a short green
tunic, to mid thighs and mid upper arms, and has a pendant
around his neck. He holds a large hammer in his left hand and
raises his right in an odd salute (the fingers divided in two
groups of two). He wears elaborate sandals and leggings, almost
up to his knees, which leave the forward half of his feet
exposed. We can see that his legs are crippled in some way.
Set'lans stands on an anvil, to the base of which two small
figures (male and female) are chained. They do not look quite
natural, and may be effigies or Hephaestus' "robots." Flamma
The Master of the melting blaze creates
The letter on Set'lans' pillar is Q, which means Vessel
Material things, and draws together mates
In hot embrace. He works from depths obscure;
To bring him to the Light, the only cure.
Reveal and seize the force he radiates!
16. Fanu Frontac (R)
Paired with Set'lans is the first pillar that does not depict a
deity; it shows Fanu Frontac (The Sacred Place of Lightning),
that is, the Omphalos Mundi (World Navel) blasted by
heaven. Specifically, a conical tower with seven stories (like a
ziggurat) stands on a small island in the midst of the ocean.
Four rivers (blue, white, yellow and red) flow from the base of
the tower into the sea. A lightning bolt has struck, knocking the
conical top off the tower. Two small figures (male and female),
apparently blasted out of the tower, are falling to earth. Fire is
everywhere, showing through seven openings in the side of the
tower, and raining down on the island from the tower. The
color scheme is primarily structured around the quadruple blue,
green, yellow and red. Semele chanted this:
The lightning bolt destroys the outworn walls.
The letter on the pillar is R, which stands for the Sacred
Thing (Rat'), the Brother (Ruva) and Moving (Er).
Two characters are overthrown; each falls,
Returns to Mother Earth. The Sacred Mound
Is quickened; there the spark of life is found.
Accept the holy blast that overhauls!
17. Turan Ati (S)
When we had finished at the pillar depicting Fanu Frontac
we returned to the western trio, to the northernmost of the
three pillars. It is displaced approximately a meter to the south
of where it should be, in order to accommodate a pool or basin
filled by the stream from the Northwest Way (which, it will be
recalled, flows from the spring in its shrine). This pool empties
into a drain in the floor of the temple.
Turan Ati (Mother Venus, Venus Genetrix) is depicted as
a young woman, with copper-colored skin, naked but for a tiara,
shoes laced up her calves and her kestos
(embroidered magic girdle); she kneels by the side of a pool.
From a gold drinking horn in her left hand she pours water onto
the ground, from the silver horn in her right she pours water
into the pool. In the background is a beehive tomb flanked by
white and dark cypresses, similar to those on the fourteenth
pillar. A eight-rayed star blazes above, which is surrounded by
seven smaller stars. This symbol shows that Turan is also Aphrodite
Urania (Heavenly Venus). Spes (Hope) announced that Turan is the
"Lady of Necessity," and then sang,
The Child of Earth and Starry Heaven waits,
The letter on this pillar is S, which stands for the Mistress
(Maid or Female Companion, Snenat'), the Daughter (Sec), Alive
(Sval) and the number Seven (Semp').
Attending to decrees of Stars and Fates,
While through her hands the waters ebb and flow
In Cosmic Rhythm, then descend below.
She marks the time, and Destiny creates!
18. Aritimi (T)
After Turan's pillar we returned to the northwest pair of
pairs, starting at the pillar in the southeast corner, which
depicts the Moon (Tiv), ruled by Aritimi (Diana). A young
crescent moon shines above a desolate scene at the beach: two
canines (black and white) bay at the moon while some sort of
crustacean emerges from the water. The twin towers of a
walled city are visible in the distance. The dark blue of the sky
and ocean is the dominant color. The Giane called Phoebe said,
The Nascent Moon controls the sunless skies,
The letter on this pillar is T, which stands for the Moon (Tiv),
the Boundaries (Tular), the Grandmother (Teta) and the month Turane
And offers wisdom for whoever tries
To cross the desert. Guardians must be
Appeased to make the passage from the Sea.
Approach the dreadful Dark with insight's eyes!
19. Aplu (U)
Paired with the Moon is a pillar depicting the Sun (Usil),
ruled by Aplu (Apollo). A brilliant solar disk shines above a
walled garden in which a boy and girl dance, arm in arm.
Panthera explained that the children represent Castur (Castor)
and Clutmstra (Clytemnestra) among mortals, and Pultice
(Polydeuces) and Elinai (Helen) among the immortals. "Golden
drops of sunshine" seem to be falling from the solar disk; yellow
and gold are the dominant colors in this sunny scene. Pythias
The holy place where dawn is never done,
The letter U on the pillar stands for the Sun (Usil) and
The garden wherein rebirth is begun,
Is where the children dance the Dance of Life,
With Love and Logic, reconciling strife.
Enjoy the sacred Garden of the Sun!
20. Turmus & Atunis (S`)
The scene is dominated by Turmus (Mercury), who flies in
the air, sandals strapped to his legs, naked but for a blue cloak
clasped over his shoulders. He is young, clean-shaved, and on
his head is a broad, red, winged hat. In his left hand he holds a
long caduceus, with two snakes wound tightly on the top; his
right holds to his mouth a long golden trumpet, from which
hangs a banner emblazoned with an equal-armed cross. Below
him, on a small island in the midst of the ocean, is a green
sarcophagus, in which stands Atunis (Adonis) as a naked, young
child. The sarcophagus is flanked by two figures, Turan Ati and
Maris Apa (Mother Venus and Father Mars). Chloe (Young
Green Shoot) gave the verse:
The trumpet sounds; the Herald calls the Child
The letter S` is on this pillar; it represents the Wind Player
(S`uplu), the Tomb (S`ut'i) and the Dead One (S`ians).
To rise and be rewarded - or reviled.
Reborn from ash that roasted in the Arc,
His spirit body bears the golden mark.
Arise, and let the poles be reconciled!
21. Menrva (P')
Menrva (Minerva) is seated on a throne, and holds scales in
her left hand and an upright sword in her right; a helmet with a
red horse-hair fringe is pushed back on her blond hair. She
wears a green mantle over a blue robe; on her chest is a red
aegis with the Mask of the Gorgon in the center. The four
primary colors, red, blue, green and yellow, are balanced in the
picture. Noctua (Nightowl) intoned loudly:
A balance holds opposing forces, bound
This pillar's letter is P', which mean a Mask (P'ersu).
But separate. Herein Harmony is found,
The child of Strife and Love. The keen-edged blade
Divides acutely, truth with wisdom weighed.
By balanced deeds the cosmic mind is crowned.
22. Ana & Ane (F)
This completed our viewing of the paired columns in the
center of the temple, so Panthera brought me to the last,
westernmost pillar. It depicts a figure with two faces like
Janus, except that one is female and the other male. Indeed,
Panthera explained that the figure represents the magical
unification (as recounted in
of Jana and Janus,
who the Giane say are the same as Diana and Dianus. Moreover,
she said that in their oldest language (Etruscan) they are called
Ana and Ane, which may be translated She and
This androgyne, whom they call Ana-Anec (Ana-and-Ane, She-He),
is dancing in an oval formed by two dragons, who bite each
other's tails. Outside this oval, in the corners of the relief, are
four heads: an old man's, a calf's, a lion's and an eagle's. The
colors red, blue, green and yellow dominate the image, although
Ana-Anec is draped in a violet, Y-shaped scarf. Gold and silver
rods are in the androgyne's hands. Virga (Staff) recited the
The Dancer looks both ways, and holds the keys
The letter on this pillar is F, which means Divinity (Flere),
Heaven (Falatu) and Sacred Place (Fanu).
That show the rising, falling vortices.
Her dance expands within the world, and takes
The world within; in her the world awakes.
Unreal divisions yield to unities!
I was shown the Western Portal in the wall behind this
pillar, but I was not allowed to go through, for I was told that
this led to the Sacrum Sacrorum (Holy of Holies),
which is off-limits. Therefore we returned to the Eastern Portal
and left the subterranean temple.
1 In Etruscan words throughout this document, C', P' and T' represent
aspirated C, P and T; S' and S` are S-like sounds. Z is pronounced TS.
2 The Giane are an oral culture, but use the Etruscan alphabet for
numeration. As used by the Giane, the alphabet comprises letters that
A C E V Z H T' I K L M N P S' Q R S T U S` P' (C') F.
The Giane received this alphabet when the first Sardinian settlers came
from Etruria, and the Etruscans may have got it from the Greeks at
Cumae. According to
the Giane origin epic, at the end of
the second millenium BCE, western Luvian (Lydian or Lycian) colonists,
who called themselves the Rasna (Etruscans), including "the Sibyl" and
"the Daedalus," stopped at Sardinia before colonizing first Cumae
and later Etruria, and they may have brought the alphabet to the Giane
at this time.
3 Many of the attendant Giane had names appropriate for the gods to
whom they were dedicated; I wondered whether they had chosen, or
been given, these names when they had dedicated themselves to their
gods, or whether they had been intended for a particular god from birth.
I never found out; they did not seem to see much of a distinction.
4 The Etruscan letter transliterated "Z" is pronounced TS.
5 These names have the form of feminine and masculine proper noun
endings (-a, -e) applied to the gender-neutral pronoun an
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